Developed by Kip Thorne and others at the start of the 1980s, faster-than-light (FTL) travel was achieved almost simultaneously by researchers in Boston and Moscow. By 1981 humanity had harnessed the Casimir effect to produce the negative energy field required to generate and stabilize an Einstein–Rosen bridge wormhole. The wormhole is only open for an instant; meanwhile, the ship is pulled through toward its destination. To achieve an effect significant enough for interstellar transport of a vessel, vast amounts of power are required. This power is stored in capacitor cells within the ship that needs time to charge to avoid damage. The capacitor cells can receive electricity from a ship’s Sonofusion reactor as well as deployable solar panels or can be transferred from a space station or another vessel. It’s also been observed that objects leaving the Einstein-Rosen wormhole of a Thorne Drive will shed a significant electromagnetic surge.
FTL drives built around Einstein–Rosen traversable wormhole technology became commonly known as Thorne Drives. Named after one of it’s most prominent developers Kip Thorne, and is the oldest form of faster-than-light travel. They are still widely used for most applications, though those used for interstellar vessels have become more compact, they remaining massive and expensive.
In 2011 Dr. Rosslen Grace made another breakthrough after ten years of research into creating an even more efficient Throne Drive. A scaling error in the computer model she was testing revealed that a Throne Drive could be developed that is smaller and more power-efficient than previously imagined. Using only a few hundred kilojoules, the new design could transport a few hundred kilograms. This unique design, however, was found to only be valid at a small scale but could allow units and perhaps even individuals to achieve short-range teleportation.